1. Dobbs R, Sawers C, Thompson F, et al. Overcoming obesity:
An initial economic analysis. McKinsey Global Institute 2014.
2. Swinburn BA, Sacks G, Hall K, et al. The global obesity
pandemic: Shaped by global drivers and local environments.
Lancet. 2011; 378:804–814.
3. UK Foresight Programme 2007. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/reducing-obesity-obesity-system-map.
Last accessed: October 2021.
4. Farooqi IS. Defining the neural basis of appetite and obesity:
from genes to behaviour. Clin Med (Lond). 2014; 14:286–289.
5. Anand BK and Brobeck JR. Hypothalamic control of food intake in
rats and cats. Yale J Biol Med. 1951; 24:123–140.
6. Zhang Y, Proenca R, Maffei M, et al. Positional cloning of
the mouse obese gene and its human homologue. Nature. 1994; 372:425–432.
7. Coleman DL and Hummel KP. Effects of parabiosis of normal with
genetically diabetic mice. Am J Physiol. 1969; 217:1298–1304.
8. Farooqi IS and O'Rahilly S. 20 years of leptin: human disorders
of leptin action. J Endocrinol. 2014; 223:T63–70.
9. Börjeson M. The aetiology of obesity in children. A study of 101
twin pairs. Acta Paediatr Scand. 1976; 65:279–287.
10. Stunkard AJ, Harris JR, Pedersen NL, et al. The body-mass
index of twins who have been reared apart. N Engl J Med. 1990; 322:1483–1487.
11. Montague CT, Farooqi IS, Whitehead JP, et al. Congenital
leptin deficiency is associated with severe early-onset obesity in
humans. Nature. 1997; 387:903–908.
12. Loos R. Recent progress in the genetics of common obesity. Br J
Clin Pharmacol 2009; 68:811–829.
13. Clément K, Vaisse C, Lahlou N, et al. A mutation in the
human leptin receptor gene causes obesity and pituitary dysfunction.
Nature. 1998; 392:398–401.
14. Farooqi IS, Yeo G, Keogh J, et al. Dominant and recessive
inheritance of morbid obesity associated with melanocortin 4 receptor
deficiency. J Clin Invest. 2000; 106:271–279.
15. Krude H, Biebermann H, Luck W, et al. Severe early-onset
obesity, adrenal insufficiency and red hair pigmentation caused by
POMC mutations in humans. Nat Genet. 1998; 19:155–157.
16. Hebebrand J, Volckmar, A-L, Knoll N, et al. Chipping away
the 'missing heritability': GIANT steps forward in the molecular
elucidation of obesity - but still lots to go. Obes Facts.
17. Speliotes EK, Willer C, Berndt S, et al. Association
analyses of 249,796 individuals reveal 18 new loci associated with
body mass index. Nat Genet. 2010; 42:937–948.
18. Panzeri I and Pospisilik JA. Epigenetic control of variation and
stochasticity in metabolic disease. Mol Metab. 2018; 14:26–38.